Stress and strains occur when a load is applied to a structure or component. The stresses and strains are in a stress-strain relationship. This depends on the modulus of elasticity of the building material and is described by Hooke's law (σ = E · ε).
These relationships are generally determined by a tensile test. This is a standardized method for material testing. This is one of the destructive test procedures in which a sample of the material is taken up to the breaking load. This enables the yield strength, tensile strength, elongation at break and other material properties to be determined.
The test setup for the tensile test on an elastomer sample is shown in the right figure. The specimen is clamped between 2 abutments. A laser optical measuring sensor is installed to measure the strains. During the test the sample is pulled apart at the plates with a continuous speed. The test is run up to the breaking load. The stress-strain relationship can then be determined from the stresses entered and the measured strains.