The overhead lines with their masts are the conductors of the electrical power supply. The masts are mainly manufactured in wood, concrete or steel construction and can have various designs. For the high and extra-high voltage network (220kV and 380kV), steel lattice masts are generally used to allow for great heights and spans. The individual bars of these lattice masts are mainly made of hot-rolled angle steel, which can be easily transported and installed. The connections are mostly used as wolted connections without additional gusset plates.
2D and 3D framework models are used for the design of such lattice towers, with which the individual load combinations can be efficiently calculated. In addition to permanent loads, wind loads from different directions, snow and ice loads and possibly conductor tension forces at low temperatures are the most important influences.
Lattice towers are also used in the expansion of mobile phone networks. The mast shapes, materials and components favored for this purpose can also be planned by SKI Ingenieurges. mbH. For the dimensioning of the individual components, the dimensioning tools already described above are used.
Transmitters can be erected as steel or concrete structures. These serve as supports for different systems. They can be used for wind turbines, transmitting antennas, measuring stations or systems for the radio network (5G). In the middle of the 20th century, transmission masts were almost exclusively used as supports for transmitting antennas.
Taking into account all relevant factors the following tasks are carried out by engineers in order to ensure the stability of the pylons for the appropriate useful life:
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